Semiconductor wafer

Semiconductor wafer

Semiconductor wafer :In our daily lives, a semiconductor wafer is completely undetectable. A semiconductor wafer is a spherical piece of silicon made up of silicon dies that are each designed to fulfill a certain function. Silicon has an atomic number of 14 on the periodic table and an atomic weight of little more than 28. This is easily remembered from school. However, there are numerous additional fascinating facts regarding semiconductor wafers that you should be aware of.

Semiconductor wafer

Semiconductor wafer

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Semiconductor wafer

Semiconductor wafer

There are numerous factors that can alter the outcome of the manufacture of a semiconductor wafer. Temperature and electrical conductivity are some of these variables. The semiconductor wafer’s fabrication procedure can also change.

fabrication techniques for semiconductor wafers
Semiconductor wafers are created using a variety of procedures. Their intricacy varies, though. Photolithography, chemical vapor deposition, and physical vapor deposition are a few of the techniques used.

A thin metal coating is placed on the silicon surface during the construction of semiconductor devices. In integrated circuit chips, these metal oxide semiconductor devices are employed. Microcontrollers also use semiconductor devices made of metal oxide.

The final result is assembled on the silicon surface after the procedure is finished. There may be several dozen or more chips on a wafer. The procedure requires tightly controlled air quality and is highly standardized.

Semiconductor wafer
Contaminants must first be removed from the wafer. These include chemical contaminants and heavy metals. The minority carrier diffusion length in the finished silicon wafer is decreased by these imperfections.

The surface of the wafer will now be covered with a thin coating of silicon oxide. For side wall etching, this layer is employed. Additionally, a shielding film is created to shield the wafer from harmful chemical contaminants.

Wafers with a single crystal of a compound semiconductor are made using this procedure. Similar techniques are utilized to create single crystal compound semiconductor ingots and semiconductor wafers. Chemical etching is used in the process’ last step.

Following etching, the wafer is polished to provide a highly reflective surface. Alumina or silica abrasive particles that have been finely distributed in an alkaline solution are used in chemical mechanical polishing. The leftover etching remnants are then cleaned off the wafer in a hot oven.

The circuit layout must then be printed. Passing light through the exposure apparatus selectively can accomplish this operation. Measurement tools and optical microscopes will be required to examine this pattern.

Temperature-dependent changes in semiconductor properties
It is feasible to determine how various semiconductor device parameters vary with temperature using a variety of measuring techniques. Thermal impedance measurements, optical measurements, and electrical measurements can all be used for this. All of these techniques offer the controlling unit inputs and show how the material behaves under various circumstances.

Temperature is one of the environmental factors that is most frequently measured. It is also possible to gauge charge carrier mobility using this variable. The quantity of holes in a semiconductor can also be counted. As the temperature rises, there will be more holes.

The most common tools used to test thermal impedance are an infrared camera or infrared microscope. While semiconductors have negative resistance, metals and insulators have positive thermal impedance. Both the infrared and visible spectrums can be used to measure the refractive index because it will change with temperature.

Another temperature indicator is the thermo-optic coefficient. In GaN substrates, it is tested from ambient temperature to 480 K.
Semiconductor wafer
The temperature-dependent electronic interband transition is one of the key thermometers. A semiconductor can move electrons from the valence band to the conduction band thanks to this transition. Increased conductivity and decreased resistivity result from this transition, which also enables the semiconductor to behave as an insulator.

Semiconductor wafer

Semiconductor wafer